Nepal Info

Nepal is a country of highly diverse and rich geography, culture, and religions. Nepal covering an area of 147,181 sq.km, shares a border with India in the west, south and east and with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in the north. With maximum width of 230 Km from north to south and approx 800 Km long from east to west, Nepal shares its landscape from 70m above sea level Kanchan Kalan in Jhapa district to the summit of Mt. Everest at 8,848 m. Due to different landscapes like mountains, mid hills, valleys, lakes and plains there is an incredible diversity in topography ranging from a sub-tropical climate in the plains to Alpine conditions in the Himalayan regions. Mountains, mid hills, valleys, lakes and plains dominate the landscape of this landlocked country. It contains over 240 peaks more than 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level. Nepal is primarily an agricultural country. Tourism, carpets and garments are among other major industries. Nepal is an ornithologist’s paradise, with over 800 species of birds, including storks, pheasants, cuckoos and enormous birds of prey. Large tracts of forested land have been preserved as national parks and wildlife reserves where endangered species like the Royal Bengal tiger and the Greater one-horned rhinoceros roam freely along with an amazing variety of mammals and reptiles that include bear, leopards, hyenas, wild boar, wild elephants, monitor lizards, crocodiles, pythons, turtles and various species of insects. Nepal is also known as trekking paradise offering the wide range of trekking options from a day hike to strenuous trekking in Himalayan area. Such trekking offers excellent opportunity of experience the rural Nepalese life style & natural beauty. Crystal clear lakes, tall mountains, deep gorge, rivers, wild flora & fauna, friendly and welcoming people will make your visit memorable & most enjoyable in your life time.

AREA, LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY

Nepal covers an area of 147,181 square kilometers, located between India in the south and China in the north. At latitudes 26 and 30 degrees north and longitudes 80 and 88 degrees east, Nepal is topographically divided into three regions: the Himalaya to the north, the hills consisting of the Mahabharat range and the Churia Hills, and the Terai to the south. The highest point is Mt. Everest (8848 m) in the north and the lowest point (70 meters above sea level) is located at Kechana Kabal of Jhapa District. The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal result in a variety of biomes, from tropical savannas along the Indian border, to subtropical broadleaf and coniferous forests in the Hill Region, to temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalaya, to montane grasslands and shrublands and rock and ice at the highest elevations.

CAPITAL

Kathmandu is not only the capital of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal but also the headquarters of the Central Region (Madhyamanchal) among the five development regions constituted by the 14 administrative zones of Nepal located at the central part of the country. The Kathmandu valley with its three districts including Kathmandu District accounts for a population density of only 97 per km2 whereas Kathmandu metropolitan city has a density of 13,225 per km2. It is by far the largest urban agglomerate in Nepal, accounting for 20% of the urban population in an area of 5,067 hectares (12,520 acres) (50.67 square kilometers (19.56 sq mi)

LANGUAGE

Nepali, written in the Devanagari script, is the national language as well as the lingua franca for Nepal’s diverse communities. Numerous languages and dialects are spoken in the kingdom, however, only six (Nepali, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Tharu, Tamang and Nepalbhasa) are spoken by more than half a million people. English and Hindi are widely understood in the urban centers and areas frequented by tourists.

CUSTOMS & EXPORT

A. Green Channel: Passengers arriving at Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) without any dutiable goods can proceed through the Green Channel for quick clearance without a baggage check. If you are carrying dutiable articles, you have to pass through the Red Channel for detailed customs clearance. B. Import: Apart from used personal belongings, visitors are allowed to bring to Nepal free of duty cigarettes (200) or cigars (50), distilled liquor (one 1.15 liter bottle), and film (15 rolls). You can also bring in the following articles free of duty on condition that you take them out with you when you leave: binoculars, movie or video camera, still camera, laptop computer, and portable music system. C. Export: It is illegal to export objects over 100 years old (sacred images, paintings, manuscripts) that are valued for culture and religious reasons. Visitors are advised not to purchase such items as they are Nepal’s cultural heritage and belong here. The Department of Archaeology at Ramshah Path near Singha Durbar has to certify all metal statues, sacred paintings and similar objects before they are allowed to be sent or carried out of the country. Handicraft dealers and travel agents are able to assist you in this process.

TIME

A Nepal standard time is 5 hrs 45 minutes ahead of GMT and 15 minutes ahead of Indian standard time.

CURRENCY & EXCHANGE

Nepalese currency is the rupee (abbr. Rs.) which is divided into paisa. Bank notes come in denominations of 1000, 500, 100, 50, 25, 20, 10, 5, 2, and 1 rupees. Exchange rate is approximately US $ 1 = Rs. 70.00 It is illegal to exchange currency with persons other than authorised dealers in foreign exchange (banks, hotels and licensed money changers). Visitors should obtain Foreign Exchange Encashment Receipts when changing currency and keep them, as these will help in many transactions, including getting visa extensions and trekking permits.

CLIMATE

Nepal contains a variety of climatic conditions ranging from the tropical heat of the Terai plains to the freezing cold of the high Himalayan. The mid-hills, particularly the Kathmandu Valley, are pleasant with warm summers and cool winters. Temperatures range between a maximum of 37 and a minimum of 8 degrees Celsius in the plains, 28 and 2 degrees Celsius in the Kathmandu Valley, and between -6 and 16 degrees Celsius in the mountains. The rainy season lasts from June to August. Hence, Nepal can be visited throughout the year, the best times are October through May. Activities like treks, climbing, rafting etc; undergo a temporary halt from June till September due to monsoon rains. Maximum-Minimum Temperatures (in degrees Celsius; * rainy seasons)

Month/City Kathmandu Pokhara Chitwan
Jan 19-2 20-8 24-7
Feb 20-4 21-8 26-8
Mar 25-8 27-11 33-12
Apr 30-11 30-16 35-18
May 30-16 30-19 35-20
Jun 30.0 30-20 35-23
Jul 30-20 30-21 33-24
Aug 30-21 30-21 33-24
Sep 27-19 29-20 32-22
Oct 23-15 27-18 31-18
Nov 23-4 23-11 29-12
Dec 20.2 20-8 24-8

Approximate temperatures: Bhairawa (max 42-min 5); Gorkha (33-5); Janakpur (42-4); Jiri (28-minus6)

ENTRY PROCEDURES & VISA RULES

Tourist Visa

Visa Facility Duration Fee
Multiple Entry 15 days US $25 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple Entry 30 days US $40 or equivalent convertible currency
Multiple Entry 90 days US $100 or equivalent convertible currency

For Visa Extension

Tourists can stay for a maximum of 150 days in a visa year (Jan 1 to Dec 31) extending the visa at the rate of 2 US $ per day. However, a minimum amount of US$ 30has to be paid for a period of 15 days or less.

ENTRY POINTS

By Air
Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu
By Land
Kakarbhitta
Birgunj
Belhiya (Bhairahawa)
Nepalgung
Dhangadi
Jogbani (Biratnagar)
Mahendra Nagar in Nepal-India border
Kodari in Nepal-China border

CLOTHES

Medium-weight and easy to wash cottons can be a good choice year round in the Kathmandu Valley. From October to February, woolen sweaters, jackets or similar other warm outfits are necessary. Short or long-sleeved shirts are good March through May. From June to September, light and loose garments are advisable.

MONEY & CREDIT CARD

American Express, Visa & Master Card are accepted at major hotels, travel agencies, restaurants, carpet and curio shops throughout the country.

OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS

Saturday is the weekly holiday. Most of the shops and Tibetan refugee camps remain closed on Saturdays. All museums remain closed on Tuesdays and government holidays.

WORKING HOURS

Government offices open from 9 A.M. to 17 P.M. in the summer and from 9 A.M. till 16 P.M. in the winter.

SHOPPING

Shopping can be very rewarding and exciting in Kathmandu. There are numerous tourist shops on the main streets and in the hotel arcades brimming with tempting jewelry, statues, and typical Nepalese handicraft. Thangka is one of the best buys in Nepal. Each place has its specialty product, which is unique. Bhaktapur, for instance, is the place to buy pottery. The Traditional Craftsman’s Colony in Patan is a famous center for Nepalese handicraft. You may get carved wooden items while at Patan. As for jewelry, buyers can opt for loose gems or custom-made items. Besides handicraft, Nepal is also a good place for genuine luxury goods. With a host of departmental stores and shopping plazas offering international brand-name products, Kathmandu has become a haven for the serious shopper. Browsers will enjoy the city’s numerous traditional markets that overflow with vegetables, fruits and other.

INSURANCE

A travel insurance policy that covers theft, loss and medical treatment is recommended. Make sure the insurance also covers the activities that you will be undertaking during your stay in Nepal such as trekking or river rafting.

WORLD HERITAGE SITES (CULTURAL)

Kathmandu Valley

Kathmandu Durbar Square: Kathmandu Durbar Square in the heart of old Kathmandu city in Basantapur never fails to impress first time visitors with its intricate wood carvings and rich history. Surrounded by concrete buildings, the complex is an oasis in a fast developing, chaotic modern city. Once the residence of Nepal’s Royal family, all coronation ceremonies were held here. The palace is an amalgamation of eastern and western architecture with additions by Rana and Shah rulers over the centuries. An unbelievable 50 temples lie within the vicinity including the temple of the titular deity, Taleju Bhawani. The Durbar is divided into two courtyards, the outer Kasthamandap, Kumari Ghar, and Shiva-Parvati Temple, and the inner section consisting of Hanuman Dhoka and the main palace. Some floors have been converted to museums dedicated to three generations of Shah kings. Bhaktapur Durbar square: Showcasing architecture that dates back to the Malla period, the square is the most charming, with wide open spaces that are off limits to vehicular traffic. In Bhaktapur you will see some of the finest medieval arts of Nepal. Of particular interest are: the Golden Gate, Fifty-five Windows and the beautiful statue of King Bhupatindra Malla mounted on a giant stone pillar. The Golden Gate was erected by King Ranjit Malla as the entrance to the main courtyard of the Fifty-five Window Palace. The Palace of Fifty-five Windows was built during the reign of King Yakshya Malla in 1427 A.D.and was re-modelled by King Bhupatindra Malla in the 17th Century. The Art Gallery has a fascinating collection of ancient manuscripts, thangkas, centuries-old stone sculpture, antique paintings that belong to the Hindu and Buddhist traditions of various periods. This gallery is open every day of the week except Tuesday. Patan Durbar Square: Patan Durbar Square complex is perhaps the most photographed of the three durbar squares. Located in the heart of Patan city, this was once the palace of the kings of Patan. The square is a display of Newari architecture that had reached its pinnacle during the reign of Malla kings who were great builders and patrons of the arts. The palace has three main courtyards: the central and the oldest is Mul Chowk. To the west of the complex are a dozen free standing temples of various sizes and built in different styles. A masterpiece in stone, the Krishna Temple, Bhimsen Temple, the Golden Temple of Hiranya Varna Mahavira and Sundari Chowk mark the artistic brilliance of the Newar craftsment of that era. The Sundari Chowk with the sunken bath of Tusha Hiti, showcases exquisite woodcarvings, stone and metal sculpture. Like the other palaces, Patan Durbar Square also houses a temple dedicated to Taleju Bhawani. Swoyambhunath stupa: Swoyambhu literally means ‘Self-Existent One.’ Swoyambhunath is believed to have been established more than 2,500 years ago. According to translations from an inscription dating back to 460 A.D., it was built by King Manadeva and by the 13th century, Swoyambhunath had developed into an important center of Buddhism. Legend has it that Swoyambhu was born out of a lotus flower that bloomed in the middle of the lake which the Kathmandu valley once was. The largest image of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Nepal was recently built on the western boundary of Swoyambhu. Behind the hilltop is a temple dedicated to Manjusri or Saraswati – the Goddess of learning. Chaityas, statues and shrines of Buddhist and Hindu deities fill the stupa complex. The base of the hill is almost entirely surrounded by prayer wheels that were recently installed. Devotees can be seen circumambulating the stupa at all times. The stupa sits atop the hill and the exceedingly steep stone steps leading up to the shrine is quite a challenge. However there is also a road going up almost to the top and you can drive up. A large numbers of Buddhists and Hindus alike visit Swoyambhunath throughout the day. Swoyambhu is perhaps the best place to observe religious harmony in Nepal. Pashupatinath temple: The holiest shrine dedicated to Lord Shiva, Pashupatinath is one of the four most important religious sites in Asia for devotees of Shiva. Built in the 5th Century and later renovated by Malla kings, the site itself is said to have existed from the beginning of the millennium when a Shiva lingam was discovered in the forest. The largest temple complex in Nepal, it stretches on both sides of the Bagmati River which is considered holy by Hindus. The main pagoda style temple has a gilded roof, four sides covered in silver, and wood carvings of the finest quality. Temples dedicated to several other Hindu and Buddhist deities surround the temple of Pashupatinath. Nearby is the temple of Guheshwori dedicated to Shiva’s consort Sati Devi. Cremation of Hindus takes place on raised platforms and it is always in use. Only Hindus are allowed inside the gates of the main temple. The inner sanctum has a Shiva lingam and outside sits the largest statue of Nandi the bull, the vehicle of Shiva. There are hundreds of shiva lingams within the compound. The big Shivaratri festival in spring attracts hundreds of thousands of devotees from within Nepal and from India. Boudhnath stupa: The awesome structure of Bouddhanath is indeed inspiring. The 36-meter-high stupa of Bouddhanath is one of the largest stupas in South Asia. With countless monasteries surrounding it, Bouddhanath is the center of Tibetan Buddhism in Nepal. Built in the shape of a mandala designed to replicate the Gyangtse of Tibet, the stupa was renovated by Licchavi rulers in the 8th Century. The location of the stupa is interesting as it once lay on the ancient trade route to Tibet and it was here that Tibetan merchants rested and offered prayers for centuries. Boudha even today has a strong Tibetan presence as countless Tibetan refugees found a home around the stupa. On top is the harmika and on each side are painted the all seeing eyes of the Buddha symbolizing awareness. The canopy has thirteen stages. At ground level there is a brick wall with 147 niches and 108 images of the meditational buddha inset behind copper prayer wheels. Chagunarayan temple: Perched on a hill and visible from miles around, the Changu Narayan temple stands majestically above the rice fields of Bhaktapur. Dedicated to Vishnu, the Preserver the temple’s origins go back to the 4th century. A fifth century stone inscription in the temple proclaims it as one of the oldest shrines of the Kathmandu Valley. The temple is a showcase for Newari art and architecture of the early century. The stone, wood, and metal craft found here are exemplary. On the struts of the two-tiered Changu Narayan Temple, are ten incarnations of Narayan. And a 6th Century stone statue shows the cosmic form of Vishnu. Garuda, half man and half bird, is the vehicle of Vishnu, and his life-size statue kneels before the temple. Lumbini: Lumbini associated with the birth of Lord Buddha is of immense archeological and religious importance and also a UNESCO Cultural Heritage Site. It is said that Prince Siddhartha Gautam, who later became Buddha the ‘Enlightened One’, was born in the gardens of Nepal’s Lumbini in 623 B.C. The main shrines of Lumbini are the newly restored Mayadevi Temple, the Ashokan Pillar behind the temple and the Lake Shakya Puskarini where Mayadevi is said to have bathed before delivering the little Buddha into the world. Several other places near Lumbini are linked with stories connected to Buddha and Buddhism. Lumbini is about 300 kilometers south-west of Kathmandu. Buses and flights to Bhairawa which is about 22 kilometers from Lumbini, are available from major cities. From Bhairawa transport services to Lumbini are easily available. There are sufficient hotels and restaurants in Lumbini and Bhairawa.

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES (NATURAL)

Chitwan National Park Nepal’s first and most famous national park is situated in the Chitwan Doon the lowlands of the Inner Terai. Covering an area of 932 sq km. the park includes hilly areas of the Siwalik Range covered by deciduous sal forest. One fifth of the park is made up of the floodplains of the Narayani, Rapti, and the Reu Rivers and is covered by dense tall elephant grass interspersed with riverine forests of silk cotton (kapok), acacia and sisam trees. This ecologically diverse area is the last remaining home in Nepal for more than 300 of the endangered Asian one-horned rhinoceros and harbours one of the largest populations of the elusive and rare Bengal tiger. Besides rhino and tiger, Chitwan also supports a great variety of flora and fauna. There are four species of deer, including the spotted chittal, leopard, sloth bear, wild boar, rhesus monkey, grey langur monkey, wild dog, small wild cats, the white stockinged gaur (the world’s largest wild cattle) and many other smaller animals. The swampy areas and numerous oxbow lakes of Chitwan provide a home for marsh crocodiles. In a stretch of the Narayani river is found one of the few remaining populations of the rare and endangered fish-only eating gharial, or Gangetic crocodile. Here also is found one of the world’s four species of freshwater dolphins. For the ornithologist and the amateur bird-watcher the park offers excellent possibilities with more than 450 species recorded. Some of the resident specialties are several species of woodpeckers, hornbills, Bengal florican, and red-headed trogons. Winter birds such as waterfowl, Brahminy duck, pintails and bareheaded geese, amongst many other cold weather visitors are drawn by the sanctuary of the park’s rivers. In the summer the forest is alive with nesting migrants such as the fabulous paradise flycatcher, the Indian pitta and parakeets.

Sagarmatha National Park (Mt. Everest National Park)

Unique among natural heritage sites world-wide is the Sagarmatha National Park, which includes Mt. Everest (8,848 m) and other high peaks such as Lhotse Shar, Cho Oyu, Ama Dablam, Pumori, Kangtega, Gyachung Kang, Thamserku and Kwangde. Located North-east of Kathmandu, Sagarmatha National Park is 1,148 sq km. in area and consists of the upper catchment areas of the Dudh Koshi, Bhote Koshi and the Imja Khola rivers. Much of the park lies above 3,000m. Sagarmatha is rugged, with deep gorges, glaciers and unnegotiable ice and rock faces. Locally known as the ‘Khumbu’, it is the home of the famous Sherpa people. The Sherpas make a living by farming barley and potatoes and graze their yaks in high altitude pastures. Young Sherpas have also made their name in mountaineering and the trekking industry has of late become the community’s economic mainstay. In 1979 the park was declared a World Heritage Site. Trees such as rhododendron, birch, blue pine, juniper and silver fir are found up to an altitude of 4,000 meters above which they give way to scrub and alpine plants. In late spring and summer, the hillsides around the villages of Namche Bazaar, Khumjung, Thyangboche and Thame are a riot of colours with several species of rhododendon in bloom. Wildlife most likely to be seen in Sagarmatha are the Himalaya tahr, ghoral, musk deer, pikka (mouse hare) weasel and occasionally jackal. Other rarely seen animals are Himalayan black bear, wolf, lynx and snow leopard. Birds commonly seen are Impeyan pheasant, blood pheasant, snow cock, snow pigeon, red billed and yellow billed chough, Himalayan griffin vulture and lammergeier.

SOME INTERESTING PLACES OF NEPAL

Within Valley

Bungamati & Khokana The twin villages of Bungmati & Khokana date from the 16th century and are located south of Kathmandu, down a rutty road dotted with Chaityas. Bungmati is the winter home of lord Rato Machhendranath, the protector God of Patan. The shrine of Karya Binayak is located between the two villages. At Khokana ancient oil presses can be seen at work in village houses. Dakshinkali Dakshinkali is 45-minute drive south from Kathmandu. Located in a dark valley at the confluence of two streams, the shrine of Dakshinkali is the most spectacular of all Kali temples. Animal sacrifices are offered to this deity signifying fertility and the procreative powers of the Female, every Tuesday & Saturday. The animals are presented to the priest who will ritually decapitate them with a khukuri knife & bathe the black stone image of Kali in blood. Kirtipur Perched on twin hillocks and clinging to a saddle about 5 km south west of Kathmandu lies the village of Kirtipur. A long flight of steps leads up to Kirtipur from the valley floor & a motorable road goes part way up the hill. Steep paths link brick houses built on terraces. The villagers dressed in traditional costume work on ancient looms. The people are well known for their strength and valour. Many historical battles were fought and won by the inhabitants of Kirtipur Chovar Carved out of a hillside, the Chovar gorge is the only outlet for all the waters of the valley. Legend has it that Manjushree, an ancient saint cut the mountain with his magical sword, to drain out the water from the Kathmandu Valley which was then just a lake. There is a small but picturesque temple of Adinath on the top of the hill with a magnificent view of the snow capped peaks. Just beyond the gorge is a temple of lord Ganesh. The main image of the shrine is a massive rock, naturally carved. Nagarkot The tiny settlement of Nagarkot clings to a hilltop 36 kms east of Kathmandu at an altitude of 2,099m. It is one of the best vantage point to view the peaks – from the Annapurnas to Everest, the peaks seem no more than a day’s walk away. It is also possible to do a day hike from Nagarkot to Dhulikhel along the valley rim. Dhulikhel 30 kms east of Kathmandu lies the small resort town of Dhulikhel set on a hill top, enveloped in copper soiled terraces with magnificent views of the central Himalayan peaks. Dhulikhel is well known for its sunrise views and a number of day trails lead along the north ridge of the town. A good way to get a glimpse of Nepalese village life. Panauti Located at the confluence of the Punyamati & Roshi Khola rivers, Panauti was once an important staging post on the Tibet trade route with pre-Lichhavi origins. The banks of the river are now crowded with temples, shrines and cremation ghats. Across the river lies the recently restored Brahmayani temple. The Indreshwar Mahadev temple is a 15th century Newari structure with exquisite woodcarvings especially on the roof struts. Sankhu Hills surround the sleepy village of Sankhu, once on the trade route east to Helambu. Forests above the village hide an important temple to the tantric goddess, Bajra Jogini. Follow the wide stone path north of the village and walk up the steps to the temple, flanked with smaller shrines, stupas and statues. The main structure is 17th century and has a fine golden torana above the door. Behind the temple there are other shrines & sculptures.

Outside Valley

Pokhara Pokhara valley is a scenic 6-hour mountainside drive or a 25 minute flight west of Kathmandu. It is famous for its lakes and its location beneath the towering Annapurna massif. It is highly recommendable to visit this scenic valley, stay in small resort hotels with views of the magnificent Himalayan peaks, go boating on the calm waters of the Phewa and the Begnas lakes or go on tours or day hikes in the nearby hills or if time permits, on a well organized trekking holiday. Tansen Tansen, a colourful hill town is situated at an altitude of 1,450m. It is the most popular summer resort in western Nepal on account of its location and climate. It has the most extensive views of the country’s chief attraction the Himalaya; from Dhaulagiri in the west to Gaurishankar in the north east. Walking around Tansen town is interesting or short day hike to Ridi can be a rewarding experience. It takes just five hours by car from Pokhara to reach Tansen or just a couple of hours drive from Lumbini. Lumbini Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Gautam Buddha, is the pilgrimage destination of the world’s millions of Buddhists. The main attraction at Lumbini remains the sacred garden spread over 8 sq. kms and possessing all the treasures of this historical area. The Mayadevi temple (under reconstruction) is the main attraction for pilgrims and archaeologists alike. This site, identified by the Indian Emperor Ashoka’s commemorative pillar is listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. To the south of the pillar, we find the sacred pond Puskarni, where Queen Mayadevi had her bath just before giving birth to the Buddha. Other attractions include the various monasteries and stupas erected by different Buddhist countries. Royal Chitwan National Park Just a 5 hour drive from Kathmandu or a 4 hour drive from Pokhara or a 20 minutes flight from Kathmandu, Royal Chitwan National Park is proud to be called Asia’s best managed park and is home to over 50 species of mammals, 55 species of amphibians and reptiles and 525 species of birds. Wildlife that thrive here include; the great one-horned Asian Rhinoceros, Gaur, wild Bison, sloth Bear, four different species of Deer, the Rhesus Monkey and the black-faced Langur, the spotted Leopard, Royal Bengal Tiger, the fish-eating Gharial, the flesh-eating marsh Crocodile and the Gangetic Dolphin among many others. The birdlife too is very rich and varied and a delight for Ornithologists. A number of jungle lodges & camps operate inside and on the periphery of the park. They offer activities such as; elephant back safaris through the jungle in search of wildlife, nature walks, jungle drives to spot animals, canoe rides to see crocodiles & water-birds, tribal village visits etc; In the evenings, slide shows on Nepalese flora & fauna and Tharu tribal folk dances are also held.

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